A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as “Hard drive,” “HD”, or “HDD”) is a data storage device. The hard disk was first introduced on September 13, 1956 and consists of one or more platters inside of an air-sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay and connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit). Below is a picture of what the inside of a hard drive looks like for a desktop and laptop hard drive.
Heat management is important to consider when constructing or maintaining your computer. Too much heat can spell death for your sensitive components, and if you’re overclocking it’s even more of an issue. Knowing how to apply thermal paste correctly is one of the foundations of proper computer cooling. Follow this guide to learn how.
For heat sinks with a spring on the screws: Wonder why there are springs on the heat sink screws? Do not over tighten them, the springs are there to help you apply the correct amount of pressure on to the CPU and GPU. If you tighten them all the way, it may not be the correct pressure! Leave maybe 1 mm of space, just before the screw stops turning. iFixit forgot to mention this important part, and also in the heat paste guide!!
An SSD does much the same job functionally (saving your data while the system is off, booting your system, etc.) as an HDD, but instead of a magnetic coating on top of platters, the data is stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there’s no power present. The chips can either be permanently installed on the system’s motherboard (like on some small laptops and ultrabooks), on a PCI/PCIe card (in some high-end workstations), or in a box that’s sized, shaped, and wired to slot in for a laptop or desktop’s hard drive (common on everything else). These flash memory chips differ from the flash memory in USB thumb drives in the type and speed of the memory. That’s the subject of a totally separate technical treatise, but suffice it to say that the flash memory in SSDs is faster and more reliable than the flash memory in USB thumb drives. SSDs are consequently more expensive than USB thumb drives for the same capacities.
The gameplay is Super Mario Bros. 2 all over again, so the less said about it, the better. The real meat is in the plot, which involves Wart escaping Subcon, invading another dream world to recover and prepare for revenge, and finally re-invading Subcon.
In the 1970s, Ralph Baer was the Nostradamus of video games, a veritable seer into the future. Not only did he invent the Magnavox Odyssey, he envisioned pretty much every kind of game we play today — from genres like sports to games played via modems.
Sure, there were minor attempts at games such as The Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device (a missile-shooting attempt) back in 1948. A decade later came Dr. William Higinbotham. The affable scientist worked at Long Island’s Brookhaven National Laboratory after toiling away on the Manhattan Project. Perhaps because work on The Bomb was so painfully serious, Higinbotham turned to entertainment for both release and solace. He played in a jazz band called the Isotope Stompers.
And in 1958, he made Tennis for Two using a giant Donner computer. The curious came from miles around and stood in long lines to play Higinbotham’s tennis game on an oscilloscope. Yes, it was primitive. Yes, his son Willie, Jr., said “he didn’t want to be remembered just for the game.” But the good doctor’s experiment proved that the citizenry had a deep interest in electronic games. Game on.
BY HAROLD GOLDBERGThe last 50 years of video game history are packed with stories of incredible innovations, brilliant people and crucial breakthroughs that have gotten us where we are today. Here, with the help of author Harold Goldberg, IGN presents our 25 most important moments in video game history.
This history also reveals something about us as a society, about why we innovate and how we evolve. In All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How 50 Years of Video games Conquered Pop Culture, Harold Goldberg detailed the stories of this nascent industry through over 200 interviews. Here, in capsule form, are the 25 most important events in video game history, according to IGN.
HDDs were introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM real-time transaction processing computer and were developed for use with general-purpose mainframe and minicomputers. The first IBM drive, the 350 RAMAC, was approximately the size of two refrigerators and stored five million six-bit characters (3.75 megabytes) on a stack of 50 disks.
In 1962 IBM introduced the model 1311 disk drive, which was about the size of a washing machine and stored two million characters on a removable disk pack. Users could buy additional packs and interchange them as needed, much like reels of magnetic tape. Later models of removable pack drives, from IBM and others, became the norm in most computer installations and reached capacities of 300 megabytes by the early 1980s. Non-removable HDDs were called “fixed disk” drives.
An addiction to video games or computer games should be treated in much the same way as any other addiction. Like other addicts, gamers often are trying to escape problems in their lives. Video and computer games offer a particularly appealing escape to socially maladjusted teenagers, most often boys, who find it intoxicating to become immersed in a world completely under their control.
“When they play, their brains produce endorphins, giving them a high similar to that experienced by gamblers or drug addicts. Gamers’ responses to questions even mirror those of alcoholics and gamblers when asked about use,” said one addiction counselor.
Throughout Arkham City, we were confused at how the hell the Joker managed to shake off his terminal case of Titan infection and appear renewed and replenished. Of course, we eventually saw that it wasn’t really the Joker at all – it was Clayface, and the Joker was still knocking on death’s door. It’s a well-done twist, and it came out of nowhere.
Or did it? Well, if you look closely throughout, there are loads of clues that foreshadow the event. For example, when you fight the ‘Joker’, turn on detective vision. If you do this, you’ll notice that unlike regular assailants, Joker doesn’t have any bones. Furthermore, Joker takes an unholy amount of punishment from Batman, far more than you’d ever expect from a man who, despite being proficient in hand-to-hand combat, is just as breakable as a regular human. Obviously, this leads to only one conclusion – he’s not a regular human. The only thing that can withstand that amount of punishment without bones is Clayface, so it’s easily possible to put two and two together before the big reveal.
Steve Russell and his friends Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen were attracted to the TX-0 as well, which in 1961 was joined by a PDP-1 from the Digital Equipment Corporation, a computer company established by former Lincoln Laboratory engineers. Equipped with a high-quality vector display, the PDP-1 offered the promise of more sophisticated visual hacks than the aging TX-0. Russell and friends, who were great fans of the science fiction novels of E.E. Smith, decided to exploit the new hardware by creating a game in which two human-controlled spaceships attempted to destroy each other by firing torpedoes. Dubbed Spacewar! (1962), this hack, programmed primarily by Russell with several crucial enhancements from members of the TMRC, became one of the first computer games to achieve national distribution when DEC decided to include it as a test program on every PDP-1 it sold. By the end of the 1960s, Spacewar! could be found in university computer labs across the United States and served as an inspiration for students to create their own variations of the game alongside entirely new designs. These creations remained trapped in the lab for the remainder of the decade, however, because even though some adherents of Spacewar! had begun to sense its commercial possibilities, it could only run on hardware costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. As computers and their components continued to fall in price, however, the dream of a commercial video game finally became attainable at the beginning by the 1970s.
By 1960, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was one of the premiere centers of computer research in the world, home to both the Lincoln Laboratory and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The former provided MIT with a custom-built transistorized computer, the TX-0, that was both smaller and more interactive than the typical mainframe, while the latter provided the institution with Steve Russell, who followed Artificial Intelligence Lab founder John McCarthy from Dartmouth College to MIT in 1958 to help him develop the LISP programming language. The TX-0 operated under fewer restrictions than MIT’s more powerful IBM mainframes and could actually be operated by students during off-peak hours in the middle of the night. The computer soon attracted a group of engineering undergrads with membership in a student organization called the Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) who referred to themselves as “hackers” after the word “hack” members of the club had defined to describe a particularly clever feat of ingenuity. Soon, Alan Kotok, Bob Saunders, Peter Sampson and other hackers were spending their nights punching out computer code on paper tape to create improved programming tools, music programs, and simple AI routines like Mouse in a Maze and a Tic-tac-toe program.
The earliest video games, by the popular and most all-encompassing definition of an interactive program incorporating both electronics and a display, developed as an outgrowth of computer research in fields such as artificial intelligence. As computer technology evolved through the 1940s from the electromechanical Z3 (1941) to the electronic Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1942) to the Turing-complete ENIAC (1945) and finally to the stored-program EDSAC (1949), computers became both powerful and flexible enough to serve a variety of scientific and business functions. In 1951, the computer was commercialized in the United States by the UNIVAC division of typewriter company Remington Rand, paving the way for the adoption of the mainframe by academic institutions, research organizations, and corporations across the developed world. Adoption of computer technology was initially limited to only the largest such organizations, however, by prohibitive cost, expansive space requirements, enormous power consumption, and the need to employ a highly trained staff to maintain and operate the machines. This created an environment in which every second of computer use needed to be justified as part of a serious scientific or business endeavor. Early game creation was thus largely limited to testing or demonstrating theories relating to areas such as human-computer interaction, adaptive learning, and military strategy.
The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academics began designing simple games, simulations, and artificial intelligence programs as part of their computer science research. Video gaming would not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when arcade video games, gaming consoles and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since then, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in most parts of the world. As of 2015, there are eight generations of video game consoles, with the latest generation including Nintendo’s “Wii U” , Microsoft’s “Xbox One” , and Sony’s “PlayStation 4″.