The Basics Of Solid State Drive (SSD)

An SSD does much the same job functionally (saving your data while the system is off, booting your system, etc.) as an HDD, but instead of a magnetic coating on top of platters, the data is stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there’s no power present. The chips can either be permanently installed on the system’s motherboard (like on some small laptops and ultrabooks), on a PCI/PCIe card (in some high-end workstations), or in a box that’s sized, shaped, and wired to slot in for a laptop or desktop’s hard drive (common on everything else). These flash memory chips differ from the flash memory in USB thumb drives in the type and speed of the memory. That’s the subject of a totally separate technical treatise, but suffice it to say that the flash memory in SSDs is faster and more reliable than the flash memory in USB thumb drives. SSDs are consequently more expensive than USB thumb drives for the same capacities.

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How To Buy Right Microwave Oven

Today microwave oven has become most popular and most used kitchen appliance across the globe. They are commonly used for reheating and defrosting foods. But many advances and modern microwave oven has evolved to become one of the most important kitchen appliances that can cook a number of delicious and main course dishes in matters of minutes. Advanced microwave ovens feature many auto-cook settings so that even a first time user can operate those efficiently. As you get along with your microwave, you will see that a large number of delicacies can be conveniently prepared with this device, saving both time and effort.

Microwave Oven Working Principle

In principle, a microwave oven heats no differently than any other type of heat transfer. At a molecular level heat is a transfer of energy that results in increased motion of the molecules in a substance. Since we aren’t quantum-sized, we observe this increase in motion as a rise in temperature. In a traditional oven or stove we heat food by placing a pan on a burner or in the oven where the walls radiate heat, which cooks the outside of the food. The insides cook when heat transfers from the surface of the food to its interior. In contrast, energy from the magnetron penetrates into the food, which means the whole mass of the food can be cooked simultaneously.
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How Can An External Storage Devices Be Important To Users?

External storage devices have gone viral since they were first available to mainstream users a few years ago. Storage vendors have tried since then to make radical technology advances in an attempt to invent a capacious storage external medium that offers an enough capacity to ingest the avalanche of data generate every year from all kinds.

The challenge was how to store this influx of data economically, which requires density and low power consumption. Unfortunately, low power consumption usually means low performance, and performance is very significant in data centers in specific because they are tasked with getting data out to users quickly, let alone the fast storing procedure they are responsible of.

Many vendors have made bold steps to wade into external storage environment, which has an insatiable thirst for capacity and an equally passionate desire for performance. So what can be done here in this case? We have two types of external storage devices that mainstream computer users are using nowadays: the first is an external traditional hard drive and the second is an external solid state drive (SSD) or its sibling: USB flash stick.

The best external SSD in the market comes in high speed and is connected via thunderbolt interface, but it is less common though. If you need a high speed of an external storage device, I recommend either an ordinary external SSD or an external mSATA SSD.

As for the fastest external hard drive, it can be still a great option for those who seek extensive capacity for their large files. They are still the most demanded external storage devices in the market today.

Eventually, you can always visit: Storage Realm for the best storage devices for your system, whether it’s an internal hard drive (HDD) or a solid state drive (SSD).

Video Games That Are Really Amazing

The gameplay is Super Mario Bros. 2 all over again, so the less said about it, the better. The real meat is in the plot, which involves Wart escaping Subcon, invading another dream world to recover and prepare for revenge, and finally re-invading Subcon.

In the 1970s, Ralph Baer was the Nostradamus of video games, a veritable seer into the future. Not only did he invent the Magnavox Odyssey, he envisioned pretty much every kind of game we play today — from genres like sports to games played via modems.

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Video Games In The Current Century

Sure, there were minor attempts at games such as The Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device (a missile-shooting attempt) back in 1948. A decade later came Dr. William Higinbotham. The affable scientist worked at Long Island’s Brookhaven National Laboratory after toiling away on the Manhattan Project. Perhaps because work on The Bomb was so painfully serious, Higinbotham turned to entertainment for both release and solace. He played in a jazz band called the Isotope Stompers.

And in 1958, he made Tennis for Two using a giant Donner computer. The curious came from miles around and stood in long lines to play Higinbotham’s tennis game on an oscilloscope. Yes, it was primitive. Yes, his son Willie, Jr., said “he didn’t want to be remembered just for the game.” But the good doctor’s experiment proved that the citizenry had a deep interest in electronic games. Game on.

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the first video game that uses hard drives

BY HAROLD GOLDBERGThe last 50 years of video game history are packed with stories of incredible innovations, brilliant people and crucial breakthroughs that have gotten us where we are today. Here, with the help of author Harold Goldberg, IGN presents our 25 most important moments in video game history.

This history also reveals something about us as a society, about why we innovate and how we evolve. In All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How 50 Years of Video games Conquered Pop Culture, Harold Goldberg detailed the stories of this nascent industry through over 200 interviews. Here, in capsule form, are the 25 most important events in video game history, according to IGN.

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hard drive usage in gaming stuff

HDDs were introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM real-time transaction processing computer and were developed for use with general-purpose mainframe and minicomputers. The first IBM drive, the 350 RAMAC, was approximately the size of two refrigerators and stored five million six-bit characters (3.75 megabytes)[9] on a stack of 50 disks.

In 1962 IBM introduced the model 1311 disk drive, which was about the size of a washing machine and stored two million characters on a removable disk pack. Users could buy additional packs and interchange them as needed, much like reels of magnetic tape. Later models of removable pack drives, from IBM and others, became the norm in most computer installations and reached capacities of 300 megabytes by the early 1980s. Non-removable HDDs were called “fixed disk” drives.

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Video Games Rate With Hard Drives [p2]

An addiction to video games or computer games should be treated in much the same way as any other addiction. Like other addicts, gamers often are trying to escape problems in their lives. Video and computer games offer a particularly appealing escape to socially maladjusted teenagers, most often boys, who find it intoxicating to become immersed in a world completely under their control.

“When they play, their brains produce endorphins, giving them a high similar to that experienced by gamblers or drug addicts. Gamers’ responses to questions even mirror those of alcoholics and gamblers when asked about use,” said one addiction counselor.

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Video Games That You Might Like

Throughout Arkham City, we were confused at how the hell the Joker managed to shake off his terminal case of Titan infection and appear renewed and replenished. Of course, we eventually saw that it wasn’t really the Joker at all – it was Clayface, and the Joker was still knocking on death’s door. It’s a well-done twist, and it came out of nowhere.

Or did it? Well, if you look closely throughout, there are loads of clues that foreshadow the event. For example, when you fight the ‘Joker’, turn on detective vision. If you do this, you’ll notice that unlike regular assailants, Joker doesn’t have any bones. Furthermore, Joker takes an unholy amount of punishment from Batman, far more than you’d ever expect from a man who, despite being proficient in hand-to-hand combat, is just as breakable as a regular human. Obviously, this leads to only one conclusion – he’s not a regular human. The only thing that can withstand that amount of punishment without bones is Clayface, so it’s easily possible to put two and two together before the big reveal.

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Video Games And The Need Of Hard Drives

Steve Russell and his friends Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen were attracted to the TX-0 as well, which in 1961 was joined by a PDP-1 from the Digital Equipment Corporation, a computer company established by former Lincoln Laboratory engineers. Equipped with a high-quality vector display, the PDP-1 offered the promise of more sophisticated visual hacks than the aging TX-0. Russell and friends, who were great fans of the science fiction novels of E.E. Smith, decided to exploit the new hardware by creating a game in which two human-controlled spaceships attempted to destroy each other by firing torpedoes. Dubbed Spacewar! (1962), this hack, programmed primarily by Russell with several crucial enhancements from members of the TMRC, became one of the first computer games to achieve national distribution when DEC decided to include it as a test program on every PDP-1 it sold. By the end of the 1960s, Spacewar! could be found in university computer labs across the United States and served as an inspiration for students to create their own variations of the game alongside entirely new designs. These creations remained trapped in the lab for the remainder of the decade, however, because even though some adherents of Spacewar! had begun to sense its commercial possibilities, it could only run on hardware costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. As computers and their components continued to fall in price, however, the dream of a commercial video game finally became attainable at the beginning by the 1970s.

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Video Games With Historical Changes

By 1960, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was one of the premiere centers of computer research in the world, home to both the Lincoln Laboratory and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The former provided MIT with a custom-built transistorized computer, the TX-0, that was both smaller and more interactive than the typical mainframe, while the latter provided the institution with Steve Russell, who followed Artificial Intelligence Lab founder John McCarthy from Dartmouth College to MIT in 1958 to help him develop the LISP programming language. The TX-0 operated under fewer restrictions than MIT’s more powerful IBM mainframes and could actually be operated by students during off-peak hours in the middle of the night. The computer soon attracted a group of engineering undergrads with membership in a student organization called the Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) who referred to themselves as “hackers” after the word “hack” members of the club had defined to describe a particularly clever feat of ingenuity. Soon, Alan Kotok, Bob Saunders, Peter Sampson and other hackers were spending their nights punching out computer code on paper tape to create improved programming tools, music programs, and simple AI routines like Mouse in a Maze and a Tic-tac-toe program.

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The earliest video games report

The earliest video games, by the popular and most all-encompassing definition of an interactive program incorporating both electronics and a display, developed as an outgrowth of computer research in fields such as artificial intelligence[citation needed]. As computer technology evolved through the 1940s from the electromechanical Z3 (1941) to the electronic Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1942) to the Turing-complete ENIAC (1945) and finally to the stored-program EDSAC (1949), computers became both powerful and flexible enough to serve a variety of scientific and business functions[citation needed]. In 1951, the computer was commercialized in the United States by the UNIVAC division of typewriter company Remington Rand, paving the way for the adoption of the mainframe by academic institutions, research organizations, and corporations across the developed world[citation needed]. Adoption of computer technology was initially limited to only the largest such organizations, however, by prohibitive cost, expansive space requirements, enormous power consumption, and the need to employ a highly trained staff to maintain and operate the machines. This created an environment in which every second of computer use needed to be justified as part of a serious scientific or business endeavor. Early game creation was thus largely limited to testing or demonstrating theories relating to areas such as human-computer interaction, adaptive learning, and military strategy[citation needed].

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Hard Drives (HDD) Implementation In Video Games [P1]

The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academics began designing simple games, simulations, and artificial intelligence programs as part of their computer science research[citation needed]. Video gaming would not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when arcade video games, gaming consoles and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since then, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in most parts of the world. As of 2015, there are eight generations of video game consoles, with the latest generation including Nintendo’s “Wii U” , Microsoft’s “Xbox One” , and Sony’s “PlayStation 4”.

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SSDs vs. hard Disk drives vs. hybrid Hard Drives

Perhaps no argument has stirred up more debate in the technology industry than the ongoing fight over flash and hard drive storage. The entire industry finds itself at a unique crossroads, where an established traditional product (hard disk) is threatened to be supplanted by the rival upstart (flash). Right now, the numbers favor hard disk storage. In 2012, more than 500 million hard disk drives were shipped out compared to only around 40 million flash drives. Even so, the number of flash drives is only expected to grow over the coming years, with flash supporters predicting 239 million flash drives shipped every year by 2016. So who will win out in the battle of flash storage vs. hard drive? The answer requires an examination of each technology, their strengths and weaknesses, and what future trends show.

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Software Setup Of Hard Drives

Once the hard drive has been setup in CMOS or appears to be detected in CMOS, the hard drive must be setup through the software. Using a bootable floppy diskette, boot from the diskette to prepare the setup: If you plan on installing MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows ME, you need to setup the hard drive using the FDISK utility. If you plan on installing Windows NT or Windows 2000 you can utilize the Windows NT setup to create a NTFS partition or FAT32 partition if using Windows 2000.

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How is data read and stored on a hard drive?

Data sent to and from the hard drive is interpreted by the disk controller, which tells the hard drive what to do and how to move the components within the drive. When the operating system needs to read or write information, it examines the hard drive’s File Allocation Table (FAT) to determine file location and available areas. Once this has been determined, the disk controller instructs the actuator to move the read/write arm and align the read/write head. Because files are often scattered throughout the platter, the head needs to move to different locations to access all information.

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Hard Drive Encryption

Last but certainly not least is the desire in the enterprise for encryption of the whole disk drive. HGST and Seagate have a large number of details on encryption and how it works and that it has no impact on performance. Being in an enterprise environment, especially in a cloud environment or backup environment, means that the data is out of your data center being managed by someone else.

Now many of these services do provide their own encryption, but some do not. Having full disk encryption from my point of view is a must have and another major reason, due to reliability, that consumer drives should never be used for enterprise applications. Because if a hard drive gets removed from the environment it is unreadable.

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How to determine the hard drive type

Documentation from Seagate was the best, followed very closely by HGST, with WD far behind and Toshiba even farther behind. In the first part of this article, I’ll cover consumer and 4 TB enterprise drives and, later in this article, I’ll look at 2.5 inch 15K RPM drives and SSDs. (And as a reminder, HGST has been purchased by WD.)

Consumer Drives The first thing you will notice with consumer hard drives is that for many vendors there is a lack of documentation details like MTBF (mean time before failure) or MTTF (mean time to failure). This is especially true when comparing consumer drives to enterprise drives.

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Popular Hard Disk Drive Manufacturers

A hard drive is usually the size of a paperback book but much heavier. The sides of the hard drive have pre drilled, threaded holes for easy mounting in the 3.5 inch drive bay in the computer case. Mounting is also possible in a larger 5.25 inch drive bay with an adapter. The hard drive is mounted so the end with the connections faces inside the computer. The back end of the hard drive contains a port for a cable that connects to the motherboard. The type of cable used will depend on the type of drive but is almost always included with a hard drive purchase. Also here is a connection for power from the power supply.

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the different types of hard drive connections

Solid State Drives (SSDs) are starting to replace hard disk drives (HDDs) in many computers because of the clear advantages these drives have over HDD. While SSD is becoming more and more popular, HDD will continue to be in desktop computers with SSD because of the available capacity HDD offers over SSD. Most HDDs in the early 1980s were sold to PC end users as an external, add-on subsystem. The subsystem was not sold under the drive manufacturer’s name but under the subsystem manufacturer’s name such as Corvus Systems and Tallgrass Technologies, or under the PC system manufacturer’s name such as the Apple ProFile. The IBM PC/XT in 1983 included an internal 10 MB HDD, and soon thereafter internal HDDs proliferated on personal computers.

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Important Facts About Hard Drives

The hard drive is sometimes referred to as the “C drive” due to the fact that Microsoft Windows designates the “C” drive letter to the primary partition on the primary hard drive in a computer by default. While this is not a technically correct term to use, it is still common. For example, some computers have multiple drive letters (e.g. C, D, E) representing areas across one or more hard drives.

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How Data Is Stored On Hard Drives?

Data sent to and from the hard drive is interpreted by the disk controller, which tells the hard drive what to do and how to move the components within the drive. When the operating system needs to read or write information, it examines the hard drive’s File Allocation Table (FAT) to determine file location and available areas. Once this has been determined, the disk controller instructs the actuator to move the read/write arm and align the read/write head. Because files are often scattered throughout the platter, the head needs to move to different locations to access all information.

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What is Hard Disk Drive?

A hard disk drive (sometimes abbreviated as “Hard drive,” “HD”, or “HDD”) is a data storage device. The hard disk was first introduced on September 13, 1956 and consists of one or more platters inside of an air-sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay and connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit). Below is a picture of what the inside of a hard drive looks like for a desktop and laptop hard drive.

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Thermal Pastes For Cool CPUs

As developers continue to create microprocessors that are smaller, faster and hotter than their predecessors, the ability to dissipate the heat generated by these devices and increase thermal resistance for others is critical to the overall performance and longevity of the platforms that incorporate them. Shin-Etsu MicroSi is committed to meet these needs by manufacturing quality thermal grease and a wide variety of other thermally conductive products.

Shin-Etsu Chemical has developed thermal solutions, and is the recognized as the world leader in thermal interface material (TIM) applications.

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How to Apply Thermal Paste

With its unique high-density filling of micronized silver and enhanced thermally conductive ceramic particles, Arctic Silver 5 provides a new level of performance and stability. Available at Arctic Silver resellers worldwide. Arctic Silver 5 is the reference premium thermal compound. Arctic Silver 5 is optimized for a wide range of bond lines between modern high-power CPUs and high performance heatsinks or water-cooling solutions.

Thermal grease is a thermally conductive silicone paste acting as a medium between heat sinks and microprocessors. With its high thermal conductivity values, thermal grease is ideal for use as the primary thermal interface material (TIM 1 and TIM 2) for CPUs, MPUs and GPUs. G765 has a high insulation thermal resistance, while the other compounds were formulated to emphasize thermal conductivity X23-7762 and X23-7783D product offerings were formulated emphasize high bulk thermal conductivity values and ease of workability.

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The Needs Of Thermal Pastes In Computer Systems

Heat management is important to consider when constructing or maintaining your computer. Too much heat can spell death for your sensitive components, and if you’re overclocking it’s even more of an issue. Knowing how to apply thermal paste correctly is one of the foundations of proper computer cooling. Follow this guide to learn how.

For heat sinks with a spring on the screws: Wonder why there are springs on the heat sink screws? Do not over tighten them, the springs are there to help you apply the correct amount of pressure on to the CPU and GPU. If you tighten them all the way, it may not be the correct pressure! Leave maybe 1 mm of space, just before the screw stops turning. iFixit forgot to mention this important part, and also in the heat paste guide!!

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Kingston V200 SSD Review

For the Kingston V200 128GB (1GB = 1,000,000,000 bytes) drive, the user has 119GB (actually expressed in GiB, 1GB = 1,073,741,824 bytes) available to them as shown in the drive properties within Windows. The difference is mostly the conversion of GB to GiB plus a bit of space set aside for overprovisioning that the controller uses to maintain the drive over time in an effort to mitigate performance degradation.

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Intel 320 SSD Review

The Intel SSD 320 is the much anticipated follow-up to the Intel X25-M, easily the most popular consumer SSD to date. The SSD 320 (commonly referred to as the X25-M 3rd Generation) is a mainstream SSD, letting the big brother SSD 510 go after the enthusiast space. Mainstream doesn’t mean boring though, the SSD 320 posts quoted sequential read speeds of 270MB/s and writes of 220MB/s, which is still quite respectable. And while the SSD 320 is more of an evolution of the X25-M, there’s still a lot that’s new, like Intel 25nm NAND and capacities up to 600GB, a first for consumer SSDs.

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NAND Flash Memeory Basics

An important goal of NAND flash development has been to reduce the cost per bit and increase maximum chip capacity so that flash memory can compete with magnetic storage devices like hard disks. NAND flash has found a market in devices to which large files are frequently uploaded and replaced. MP3 players, digital cameras and USB drives use NAND flash.

NAND has a finite number of write cycles. NAND failure is usually gradual as individual cells fail and overall performance degrades, a concept known as wear-out. To help compensate, some vendors overprovision their systems by including more memory than is actually claimed.

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The Endurance Of Solid State Drive (SSD)

Most Client systems are no longer limited by processor performance. They are almost always limited by storage. Hard drives have access latencies in milliseconds, while SSDs operate in hundreds of microseconds.

An SSD can deliver new life and high performance even on systems that are a few years old (as long as they have a SATA compatible interface). An XP-based system can see its boot-up times cut from many minutes to one or less, making an SSD a performance storage upgrade. In fact, it often delivers the best performance increase of any upgrade to a system.
We will explore SSD technology in detail in future posts.

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The Architecture OF Solid State Drives (SSD)

Solid state drives represent a fairly new technology in the storage market. Flash drives (like USB thumb drives, memory cards in camcorders and cameras) have been used for years, but this technology has grown to the point where it rivals the traditional hard disk drives (HDDs) using the same form factor. At first glance, there are a few advantages to solid state drives compared to traditional hard disk drives: no moving parts, less power consumption, faster access times and silent operation. It is no wonder that the manufacturers’ marketing departments have been drawing the public’s attention to these advantages.

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Testing an SSD in the Real World

December was a slow month for SSD releases after our last update, but we’ve got stuff brewing up at the Tom’s Hardware test lab, so be ready for some new reviews. Plus, with CES just around the corner you’ll be sure to see significant activity on the SSD side of things. Just keep an eye out on the newsfeed and follow along with Tom’s Hardware as we tackle CES this week.

For this month’s 128GB Budget Buy leader , we’re still sticking to the Samsung EVO 850. At $99.99, it’s still $20 more expensive than the Crucial MX100, but the EVO 850’s performance makes up the difference. Still, if you’re looking for something less expensive and not as performance-heavy, the Crucial MX100 is still a strong second place.

The Crucial MX100 still holds the top spot for the 256GB and 512GB Best Buy categories again. The price difference between the MX100 and the Samsung 850 EVO at these capacities doesn’t justify the money you would pay for the performance, so we’re sticking to my guns and keeping the MX100 as my top 256GB and 512GB budget picks for this month.

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Solid State Drive (SSD) vs. Hard Drive (HDD)

It’s time for enterprise applications and storage to work more closely together, even to the point where SSDs become a pool of computing power, according to Samsung Semiconductor. The company wants industry standards for greater coordination between those elements, seeking to make data centers more efficient. The benefits could include CPUs communicating more with SSDs (solid-state drives) in the shorter term and later SSD controllers sharing application processing. The company gave no target dates for what would necessarily be a long-term effort, but it’s calling on several industry groups to cooperate to make it a reality.

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SSD Flash Memory Controller

Controller architecture and effective implementation processes (including manufacturing, logistics and software) transform unreliable me-too memory chips into the diverse range of application optimized (or not) SSDs which you can see in the market today.

Controller architecture and effective implementation processes (including manufacturing, logistics and software) transform unreliable me-too memory chips into the diverse range of application optimized (or not) SSDs which you can see in the market today.

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Solid State Drive (SSD)’s High Speed

The performance of both the Intel 730 Series and the Plextor M6e drives improved immensely when paired up in a striped array—between 46- and 88 percent on the plus side. We performed a write test by copying a single large file (10GB) to the drive under evaluation, and a read test by copying that same file from the drive. We repeat this sequence with a 10GB collection of small files and folders.

As I mentioned earlier, the 730 Series SSD produces middling numbers when running solo. It wrote the single large file at 470.4MBps and read that file at 376.2MBps. It wrote our 10GB collection of small files and folders at 479.0MBps, and it read them at 351.3MBps.

When we paired two of these drives in RAID 0, large-file write and read speeds skyrocketed to 800.1MBps and 707.3MBps respectively, while the collection-of-small-files write and read speeds exploded to 811.3MBps and 582.3MBps respectively. That’s an overall average of 725.3MBps reading and writing. Intel tells us running four 730 Series drives in RAID 0 can achieve average speeds of 1.2GBps. Now that’s haulin’ the freight.

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Defragmentation On Solid State Drives (SSD)

Conventional logic dictates that you should never defrag an SSD, because the SSD controller writes data in a scattershot-fashion to multiple NAND chips and locations, using algorithms that only the controller understands. The operating system sees it as a hard drive with sectors, but the data is spread all over the drive by the controller. Defragging these “sectors” is like trying to assemble a jigsaw puzzle blindfolded: You can feel parts of the pattern, but you can’t see the whole picture. In addition, NAND is good for only a few thousand write cycles, so defragging can reduce the SSD’s lifespan by unnecessarily writing data to it.

Despite those arguments, at least four defragging utilities purport to increase SSD performance through optimization: Auslogic’s Disk Defrag Pro, Condusiv’s Diskeeper, Raxco’s PerfectDisk, and SlimCleaner Intelligent Defrag. To understand how these might be of benefit, let’s review a few facts.

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Our New Advent

Arc Walton County has a new advent after a long time of absence. We are coming back with new purposes for our website to provide the information certain people want from websites that look like ours. We will be able in the near future to present some valuable stuff, that we consider valuable and maybe others as well, to the public for the sake of helping others in finding their right way in life in some different aspects and reasons.

We hope you enjoy staying on our side and find what you exactly need from your search. Your pursuit must end here, hopefully.